Written by Dr. Shyam Sundar Gupta, PhD, Medically Reviewed by Dr. Ajay Kumar Tiwari, MD (Ay.)
Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, diabetic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. Diabetes also has effects on the heart muscle, inducing heart failure (1) and kidney stone formation (2).
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD)
Diabetic kidney disease will happen in 30–40% of diabetic patients and one-third of these patients may face kidney failure. Diabetic kidney disease happens in people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (3). Although end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be the most identifiable result of diabetic kidney disease, most people in fact face death from infections before kidney replacement. Diabetic kidney disease includes glomerular hyperfiltration, declining GFR, progressive albuminuria, and finally ESRD (4).
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Cardiovascular disease is a major problem and causes the death of diabetic patients. Adult diabetic patients are 2-4 times more possible having heart disease or suffering a stroke than no diabetic people (5). Really, deaths because of cardiovascular disease in diabetic women are greater (6).
Diabetic retinopathy is the major common cause of blindness among adults aged 20–74 years. Almost all people with type 1 diabetes and more than 60% of people with type 2 diabetes suffer retinopathy (7).
Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
The possibility of occurring peripheral vascular disease is greater in diabetic people. It is occurring earlier and often more severe and spreads (8).
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
Coronary artery disease is mostly occurring among people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus induces 2-4 times greater deaths possibility of heart disease (9).
Diabetic patients have a higher possibility of kidney stone formation. Insulin resistance causes more acidic urine, and, as a result, uric acid stone formation is greater in these patients. Calcium-containing stones, a type of kidney stones, are also more common in diabetic patients (2).
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