Written by Dr. Shyam Sundar Gupta, PhD, Medically Reviewed by Dr. Ajay Kumar Tiwari, MD (Ay.)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in the world. Identification of risk factors of CKD is essential because some factors can be controlled and it may be prevented or decreased progression of CKD. The factors such as family history, age, preterm birth, overweight, obesity, uric acid, drug use, smoking and the diseases, such as hypertension, anemia, and diabetes which are associated with CKD.
Overweight and Obesity
Overweight and obesity are associated with the excess risk for CKD (3). The high waist to hip ratio is linked to higher filtration fraction, lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (4).
Hypertension is a clear risk factor for CKD. Systemic hypertension causes intraglomerular capillary pressure that decreases the kidney function (2).
The exposure to heavy metals, usage of alcohol, recreational and analgesic drugs may cause CKD (5).
Smoking can induce the risk of CKD through oxidative stress, proinflammatory state, prothrombotic shift, glomerulosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and tubular atrophy (6).
Family history of CKD is a high frequency of CKD (7).
The function of the kidney is decreased with ageing in both men and women (9).
Anemia is a worldwide problem of CKD and it is caused due to decrement in the renal production of erythropoietin (10).
Preterm birth is linked to decreased nephron mass that may cause kidney disease progression later in life (11).
Increased serum uric acid is an indicator for decreased kidney function. Uric acid may have a role in the occurrence, and development of renal functional decline (12).
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