Factors affecting chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Photo by Robina Weermeijer on Unsplash

Written by Dr. Shyam Sundar Gupta, PhD, Medically Reviewed by Dr. Ajay Kumar Tiwari, MD (Ay.)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in the world. Identification of risk factors of CKD is essential because some factors can be controlled and it may be prevented or decreased progression of CKD. The factors such as family history, age, preterm birth, overweight, obesity, uric acid, drug use, smoking and the diseases, such as hypertension, anemia, and diabetes which are associated with CKD.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease due to hyperfiltration injury, reactive oxygen species, and advanced glycosylation end products (1, 2).

Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity are associated with the excess risk for CKD (3). The high waist to hip ratio is linked to higher filtration fraction, lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (4).


Hypertension is a clear risk factor for CKD. Systemic hypertension causes intraglomerular capillary pressure that decreases the kidney function (2).


The exposure to heavy metals, usage of alcohol, recreational and analgesic drugs may cause CKD (5).


Smoking can induce the risk of CKD through oxidative stress, proinflammatory state, prothrombotic shift, glomerulosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and tubular atrophy (6).

Family History

Family history of CKD is a high frequency of CKD (7).


The function of the kidney is decreased with ageing in both men and women (9).


Anemia is a worldwide problem of CKD and it is caused due to decrement in the renal production of erythropoietin (10).

Preterm birth

Preterm birth is linked to decreased nephron mass that may cause kidney disease progression later in life (11).

Uric acid

Increased serum uric acid is an indicator for decreased kidney function. Uric acid may have a role in the occurrence, and development of renal functional decline (12).

Note: Please consult your family doctor before applying any health tips of Amrit Health Tips website (www.amrithealthtips.com).


  1. You actually make it appear really easy along with your presentation however I to find this matter to be really something which I think I might
    never understand. It seems too complex and extremely broad for me.
    I’m taking a look ahead to your subsequent post, I will attempt to get the cling of

  2. Hi there, I found your website by way of Google while looking for a related subject, your web site came up, it seems great. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  3. BEST TRADITIONAL HERBAL CURE FOR KIDNEY DISEASE AND CANCER .Hi Friends i am so glad to write this article today to tell the world how my KIDNEY DISEASE was cured,i have been detected with kidney disease (CKD), ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony, I was able to get free from kidney disease with the help of healthylife herbal centre they are the best. I just want to encourage all individuals out there living with HERPES ,  ITCHY SHINGLES , Genital Herpes, HSV1&2, HIV/AIDS/ HPV, COPD, CANCER, Hepatitis b, Lupus, PCOS, Kindney failure, Lung cancer and alot more. That there is still a huge chance that you can get cure only with the help of  healthylife herbal centre. you can kindly email: healthylifeherbalcentre@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348074216045 you can as well visit his website https://healthylife-herbal-centre.jimdosite.com

  4. Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it, you could be a great
    author. I will be sure to bookmark your blog and may come back down the road.
    I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great job, have a nice day!

  5. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this,
    like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with some pics to drive
    the message home a little bit, but other than that, this is great blog.

    A great read. I will definitely be back.

  6. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?

    Plz reply as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like
    to find out where u got this from. appreciate it
    0mniartist asmr

  7. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Many thanks, However I am going through troubles with your
    RSS. I don’t know why I am unable to join it. Is there anyone else getting identical RSS issues?
    Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanx!!
    asmr 0mniartist

  8. Hello there! This is kind of off topic but I need some advice from an established blog.
    Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick.
    I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m
    not sure where to begin. Do you have any tips or suggestions?

    With thanks asmr 0mniartist

  9. Thanks for another great post. Where else may just anybody get that kind of information in such an ideal manner of writing?
    I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I
    am on the look for such information. 0mniartist asmr

  10. Call: +27717403094
    Watsapp +27717403094
    Bontra Powerful Magic Ring +27717403094 Abdul Basser, This is the oldest, mystique and the most powerful magic rings and gemstones. This power organized by the great powerful magicians (460-800B.C) and greatly improved by the Pharaohs in Egypt. Call Abdul Basser+27717403094, the results of this ring are so great that this magic has now become well established. This power ring has got the powers of the angels of the seven planets. Now with this ring you will be the most powerful person in this whole world. This ring will affect your stars and will change you, give you success in love, business, make you look very attractive, protect you in your journey, it will prevent you from being fooled from other people, great miracles will come in your life, it will give you good luck and increase your personality, At the same time you will be the richest person in this world. You will dominate other peoples mind; change your bad luck into good luck. With this wonder ring you will even feel a powerful force protecting all, around you from evil powers, demons, witchcraft, black magic etc and even water and fire will not be able to harm you. All your enemies will become dumb and dare not talk bad about you. You will be the main source of attraction in every field… And so this powerful ring can do great wonders, some of the few examples that this wonder ring can do is: it will give you promotions in any field you want, always in examinations you will remember difficult answers, it will attract the opposite sex, whoever you want or wish will come to you, in business sky is the limit with this ring, any type of lotteries, pools, lotto’s, bingo’s etc will be won by you, you will be protected from black magic, evil powers, spirits etc so nobody will be able to talk bad about you and where ever you go you will be the centre of attraction with this wonder power ring. The moment this ring is worn its powers in contact with the fingers produces a gentle current of light electricity which quickly circulates throughout every part of the body, blood, veins, muscles and tissues, recharges the whole system with powers-refills the nerve cells and every organ and destroys diseases, germs and bestows new energy and power to the weak body.Contact +27717403094,email,basserabdul59@gmail.com ,Visit ,www.africanspellscaster.co.za ,

  11. Are you in need of a revenge spell? Do you want the person that has harmed you get what they deserve? My voodoo revenge spells will do just that. Cast it to punish your enemies with misfortune, curses, hexes & bad luck in their lives. Can be specific or general depending on the outcome you want. My spells exact suffering on a person who has genuinely caused you to suffer or has caused you to lose something you hold dear.

    Call +27717403094


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here