Written by Dr. Shyam Sundar Gupta, PhD, Medically Reviewed by Dr. Ajay Kumar Tiwari, MD (Ay.)
Overweight is having an additional body weight of bone, muscle, fat, and water. Obesity is having a higher quantity of extra fat in the body. Body mass index (BMI) calculations detect the obesity and overweight.
Underweight (BMI less than or equal to18.5)
Normal weight (BMI between 18.5 and 24.9)
Overweight (BMI between 25 and 29.9)
Obesity (BMI equal to or greater than 30)
BMI can be calculated by entering body weight (Kg) and height (cm). Click here to calculate BMI.
Obesity may responsible for the development of various common diseases in human such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, obstetric complications, blood pressure, lipid disorder, digestive, kidney, and coronary heart diseases.
Obesity causes the risk of diabetes 10-fold compared with a normal person. Overweight persons should be advised to reduce body weight and to increase physical activity (at least 150 min per week) to prevent diabetes. The persons who are older than 45 years with a BMI greater than or equal to 25 must be recommended screening for diabetes with fasting glucose every 3 years (1).
10% gain of body fat increases the 6 mm systolic and 4 mm diastolic pressure. The weight loss of 11 kg causes a 20% reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressures in the patients with hypertension even when the sodium intake is kept constant. As a general rule, each 1 % decrease in body weight reduces the blood pressure by 1 mm systolic and 2 mm diastolic (2).
Obesity is the main risk for diabetes, hypertension, and other diseases that cause kidney disease due to increasing tubular reabsorption to damage pressure natriuresis and induce the volume expansion by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the rennin angiotensin system (RAS) (3).
Coronary heart disease
Obesity and weight gain is a greater risk of coronary heart disease among young persons. Reducing body weight may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease in obese persons (4).
Obese individuals have a high risk of developing osteoarthritis. The weight loss is the primary treatment of osteoarthritis (5).
Overweight and obesity increase the risk of digestive diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), gallstones, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), pancreatitis and digestive organ cancers such as pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, HCC, esophageal cancer, and colorectal cancer (6).
The obese women have the greatest risk of miscarriage, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, venous thromboembolism, cesarean section, induced labor, wound infections and anesthetic complications and they may not be able to start or continue breastfeeding. Babies of obese women may have the risk of stillbirth, prematurity, congenital anomalies, neonatal death and macrosomia (7).
Note: Please consult your family doctor before applying any health tips of Amrit Health Tips website (www.amrithealthtips.com).